management usually refers to the husbandry practices or production
techniques that help to maximize the efficiency of production. Sound
management practices are very essential to optimize production.
Scientific poultry management aims at maximizing returns with minimum
Brooder house: Brooder house should be
draft-free, rain-proof and protected against predators. Brooding pens
should have windows with wire mesh for adequate ventilation. Too dusty
environment irritates the respiratory tract of the chicks. Besides dust
is one of the vehicles of transmission of diseases. Too much moisture
causes ammonia fumes which irritate the respiratory tract and eyes.
Good ventilation provides a comfortable environment without draft.
Sanitation and hygiene:
All movable equipments like feeders, waterers and hovers should
be removed from the house, cleaned and disinfected. All litters are to
be scraped and removed. The interior as well as exterior of the house
should be cleaned under pressure. The house should be disinfected with
any commercial disinfectant solution at the recommended concentration.
Insecticide should be sprayed to avoid insect threat. Malathion
spray/blow lamping or both can be used to control ticks and mites. New
litter should be spread after each cleaning. The insecticides if
necessary should be mixed with litter at recommended doses.
material like saw dust and paddy husk should be spread to a length of 5
cm depending upon their availability and cost. Mouldy material should
not be used. The litter should be stirred at frequent intervals to
prevent caking. Wet litters if any should be removed immediately and
replaced by dry new litter. This prevents ammoniacal odour.
Heating is very much
essential to provide right temperature in the brooder house. Too high
or too low a temperature slows down growth and causes mortality.
During the first week the temperature should be 95°F (35°C) which may
be reduced by 5°F per week during each successive week till 70°F
(21·10C). The brooder should be switched on for at least 24 hours
before the chicks arrive. As a rule of thumb the temperature inside the
brooder house should be approximately 20°F (-6·7°C) below the brooder
temperature Hanging of a maximum and minimum thermometer in each house
is recommended to have a guide to control over the differences in the
house temperature. The behavior of chicks provides better indication of
whether they are getting the desired amount of heat. . When the
temperature is less than required, the chicks try to get closer to the
source of heat and huddle down under the brooder. When the temperature
is too high, the chicks will get away from the source of heat and may
even pant or gasp. When temperature is right, the chicks will be found
evenly scattered. In hot weather, brooders are not necessary after the
chicks are about 3 weeks old. Several devices can be used for providing
artificial heat. Hover type electric brooders are by far the most
common and practical these days. The temperature in these brooders is
thermostatically controlled. Many a times the heat in the brooder house
is provided by use of electric bulbs of different intensities.
Regulation of temperature in such cases is difficult although not
impossible. Infrared lamps are also very good for brooding. The height
and number of infra-red lamps can be adjusted as per temperature
requirement in the brooder house.
Brooder space of 7 to
10 sq inch (45-65 cm2) is recommended per chick. Thus a 1·80 m hover
can hold 500 chicks. When small pens are used for brooding, dimension of
the house must be taken into consideration as overcrowding results in
starve-outs, culls and increase in disease problems.
To prevent the
straying of baby chicks from the source of heat, hover guards are placed
1·05 to 1·50 m from the edge of hover. Hover guard is not necessary
after 1 week.
Floor space of 0·05 m2
should be provided per chick to start with, which should be increased
by 0·05 m2 after every 4 weeks until the pullets are about 20 weeks of
age. For broilers at least 0·1 m2 of floor space for female chicks and
0·15 m2 for male chicks should be provided till 8 weeks of age. Raising
broiler pullets and cockerel chicks in the separate pens may be
Plentiful of clean and
fresh water is very much essential. A provision of 50 linear cm of
water space per 100 chicks for first two weeks has to be increased to
152-190 linear cm at 6 to 8 weeks. When changing from chick fountain to
water trough the fountains are to be left in for several days till the
chicks have located the new water source. Height of the waterers should
be maintained at 2·5 cm above the back height of the chicks to reduce
spoilage. Antibiotics or other stress medications may be added to water
if desired. All waterers should be cleaned daily. It may be desirable
to hold a few chicks one at a time and teach them to drink.
(Source: Dr.Acharya, Handbook of Animal Husbandry)